The development of ulcers, as a rule, is preceded by some kind of trauma, chemical or mechanical, sometimes it can be an elementary scratch.

Since the tissues are poorly supplied with blood and nutrition is disturbed in them, the injury does not heal for a long time.

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The site of injury swells, increases in size. Sometimes an infection joins it, which further slows down healing. The difference between trophic ulcers in diabetes mellitus is their painlessness. This is the reason for the late visit to the doctor, and sometimes the patients themselves do not notice their appearance for a long time. Most often, ulcers are localized in the area of ​​the foot, the lower third of the lower leg, in the area of dapagliflozin calluses. In decompensated forms of diabetes, trophic ulcers can turn into gangrene of the extremities.

In a diabetic foot, there are deep ulcers reaching the tendons and bones. In addition to trophic ulcers, diabetic foot is characterized by pathological changes in bones and joints. The development of diabetic osteoarthropathy (Charcot foot) is characteristic, which is manifested by dislocations and fractures of the bones of the foot. Subsequently, this leads to buy forxiga online of the foot. Also, a diabetic foot is accompanied by Menckeberg's syndrome, which consists in sclerosis and calcification of the vessels of the extremities against the background of advanced diabetes.

Diabetic foot Diabetic foot is a complex of pathological changes in the foot that occur in the late stages of diabetes due to the progression of dapagliflozin diabetic angiopathy. It includes trophic and bone-articular changes. Diabetic encephalopathy is manifested by disorders of memory and consciousness, as well as headache and weakness. The reason is a violation of microcirculation at the level of the brain. Due to damage to the vascular wall, lipid peroxidation processes are activated in it with the formation of free radicals, which have a damaging effect on brain cells.

  • Symptoms of diabetic encephalopathy develop very slowly. It all starts with general weakness and increased fatigue.
  • Patients are often worried about headaches that do not respond to taking painkillers. Subsequently, sleep disorders join.
  • Encephalopathy is characterized by sleep disturbance at night, and at the same time, daytime sleepiness. Further, disorders of dapagliflozin and attention develop - patients become forgetful and absent-minded.
  • There is slow, rigid thinking, reduced ability to fixate. Focal symptoms are added to the cerebral symptoms. Diagnosis of diabetic angiopathy.
  • Diagnosis of diabetic angiopathy is complex. Not only biological fluids (blood, urine) are examined for glucose levels, but also target organs in diabetes mellitus (kidneys, retina, heart, brain).

Therefore, the diagnosis of diabetic angiopathy includes laboratory and instrumental studies. Residual nitrogen is an important indicator of kidney function. Normally, its content in the blood is 14 - 28 mmol / liter. An increased content of nitrogen in the blood indicates a violation of the excretory function of the kidneys. However, the most informative in the diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy is the determination of nitrogen-containing compounds, such as urea and creatinine.

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Urea In the blood of healthy people, the concentration of urea ranges from 2.5 to 8.3 mmol/liter. With diabetic nephropathy, the concentration of urea increases significantly. The amount of urea directly depends on the stage of renal failure in diabetes mellitus. So, the concentration of urea more than 49 mmol / liter indicates massive damage to order dapagliflozin online. In patients with chronic renal failure due to diabetic nephropathy, the concentration of urea can reach 40 - 50 mmol / liter.

Creatinine Like urea, creatinine concentration is indicative of kidney function. Normally, its concentration in the blood in women is 55 - 100 µmol / liter, in men - from 62 to 115 µmol / liter. An increase in concentration above these values is one of the indicators of diabetic nephropathy. In the initial stages of diabetic nephropathy, the level of creatinine and urea is slightly increased, but in the last, nephrosclerotic stage, their concentrations increase sharply.